Cases of The latest Scenario are predict getting PS which regarding Similar Situation to own AusE audience

Cases of The latest Scenario are predict getting PS which regarding Similar Situation to own AusE audience

Based on overall LDA categories, one another listener groups are essential to come across Comparable Scenario whenever distinguishing Dutch /?-?/, because these vowels are acoustically similar to type of native phonemes. Yet not, according to research by the stepwise DAs both Dutch /?/ and you may /?/ sustain F1 resemblance in order to AusE /?/, F2 resemblance so you’re able to AusE /?:/ and you will /?/, and you can F3 similarity in order to AusE /?/, /?:/ and you will /?/. However, considering group percent (e.g., F2: Dutch /?/ > AusE /?:/, 80% and you may /?/ 15%, Dutch /?/ > AusE /?/, 95% and you will /?:/, 5%), it’s forecast that AusE audience, against Subset Circumstance, is always to separate these phonemes considering the considering the low acoustic overlap amongst the F2 and you will F3 signs. On the other hand, PS audience are predicted to display all the way down discrimination accuracy compared to the AusE listeners on account of a high acoustic convergence around the most of the three acoustic size and are generally next anticipated to identify both vowels as the PS /i/, /e/, and you may /u/.

According to research by the full Da and you will stepwise habits, AusE listeners try forecast to discover the Dutch /a-?/ a little difficult to detect since these vowels have been categorized around the two or maybe more AusE vowel groups, when you’re PS audience are predicted to encounter The brand new Circumstances because of the mainly mapping the newest music according to PS /a/.

Inside the share, when the predictions predicated on listeners’ L1 vowel stocks dimensions are borne out, AusE audience, whoever vowel directory is actually larger article than regarding PS, are required having large discrimination reliability than simply PS audience for most of the four Dutch contrasts. Instead and you may adopting the L2LP’s acoustic hypothesis, in the event that acoustic differences when considering L1 and L2 influence low-local sound perception, one another listener groups’ discrimination trouble is yield equivalent performance. Which is, one another listener teams are essential to face the fresh, Comparable, and Subset Circumstances. To evaluate these contrastive hypotheses, naive AusE listeners’ XAB discrimination and you may categorization of 5 Dutch vowel contrasts (/a-?/, /?-i/, /y-?/, /i-y/, and /?-?/) is actually than others off naive PS listeners claimed inside the early in the day degree (Escudero and Wanrooij, 2010; Escudero and you can Williams, 2011).


Twenty-two monolingual AusE students aged 18–45 years (Mage = 24.1 years; 11 females) participated for course credit at Western Sydney University. Participants were born and raised in Greater Western Sydney, and reported no experience with Dutch or any hearing impairment.

Non-native vowel categorization data from the same AusE listeners were compared to non-native vowel categorization data from 40 PS monolinguals (20 females) from Lima, Peru reported in Escudero and Williams (2011). Participants ranged in age from 18 to 30 years 2 , and reported no knowledge of Dutch or hearing impairment. XAB discrimination data from our AusE listeners was then compared to discrimination data of 22 PS listeners reported in Escudero and Wanrooij (2010). Listeners were monolinguals aged 17–28 years (Mage = ; 10 females) born and raised in Lima, Peru their entire life and reported no knowledge of Dutch.

Participant analysis range to the introduce analysis was carried out in conformity to your Person Lookup Ethics Committee (HREC), West Sydney University, acceptance count H9373.

Stimulus and you can Processes

Both categories of players first finished a-two-alternative pushed choices XAB discrimination activity accompanied by an effective nonnative categorization activity. The auditory stimuli on XAB discrimination task was 20 needless to say put tokens of any of the four Dutch vowels /a/, /?/, /?/, /i/, /y/, and you can /?/, extracted from recordings produced by 20 native Important North Dutch speakers (10 females) into the monosyllabic utterances from inside the a natural low-word /sVs/ consonantal perspective embedded within this a service provider sentence (Adank et al., 2004b). Throughout the XAB activity, listeners read three music in a row and you may were then asked to indicate perhaps the basic voice (X) seemed more like the next (A) or third (B) voice of the hitting one of two red squares (viz. “2” and you can “3”) showed with the a pc display screen. Discover a keen inter-stimulus period of 1.2 s, which was picked since it is for a lengthy period to cause phonological activation (Werker and you will Logan, 1985; Van Hesse and you can Schouten, 1999; Escudero and you may Wanrooij, 2010), and you may an enthusiastic inter-trial period from 0.5 s adopting the participant’s options. The newest experiment are conducted into the Praat and you may contains four prevents (that for every examine-/a-?/, /?-i/, /y-?/, /i-?/, and /?-?/) that has 80 products for each.

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